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Persistent inflation has helped push Germany into recession in the first three months of the year, an upgrade to growth data shows.
Europe's largest economy was also badly affected when Russian gas supplies dried up after the invasion of Ukraine, analysts said.
The economy contracted by 0.3% between January and March, the statistics office said.
That followed a 0.5% contraction in the last three months of last year.
A country is deemed to be in recession when its economy shrinks for two consecutive three-month periods, or quarters.
"Under the weight of immense inflation, the German consumer has fallen to his knees, dragging the entire economy down with him," said Andreas Scheuerle, an analyst at DekaBank.
Germany's inflation rate stood at 7.2% in April, above the euro area's average but below the UK's 8.7%.
Higher prices have weighed on household spending on things such as food and clothing. Industrial orders are also weaker, reflecting the impact of higher energy prices on businesses.
"The persistence of high price increases continued to be a burden on the German economy at the start of the year," the federal statistics agency Destatis said in a statement.
Originally, the agency had estimated zero growth for the first quarter of this year.