Mongolian Independence and the British: Geopolitics and Diplomacy in High Asia, 1911–1916

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 Geopolitics and Diplomacy in High Asia, 1911–1916


This work focuses on some High Asian diplomatic, geopolitical and trade issues, from the point of view of the British Empire, in the period between the last phase of the Ch’ing dynasty and the early years of the Chinese Republic. In particular, the significance for the British of Mongolian independence in the geopolitical dimension of Tibet will be analyzed within the framework of the international equilibrium system that had originated from the Anglo-Russian Agreement of 1907.  The research reconstructs the British attempt to use the relationship between Outer Mongolia and Russia to its advantage, in a sort of exchange necessary to make Saint Petersburg accept the Simla Convention of 1914 – finally signed by the British and Tibetans without the Chinese – and which came into conflict with what had been decided between the Russians and the British in 1907.

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Table of contents


At the End of the Great Game

The End of the Manchu Dynasty and Tibetan Independence

London and Mongolian Independence

The Chinese Backdown

The Parallel Negotiation

The British and the Kyakhta Accords



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